help colorpalette                            http://repec.sowi.unibe.ch/stata/palettes/
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Title

    colorpalette -- Color palettes


Syntax

    Syntax 1: Retrieve/display colors from one or multiple palettes

        colorpalette [argument] [, palette_options graph_options ]

    where argument is

        palette [[, palette_options] / [ palette [, palette_options] / ... ]]

    Syntax 2: Display an overview of multiple palettes

        colorpalette [, palette_options graph_options ] : pspec [ / pspec / ... ]

    where pspec is

        palette [, palette_options]

    or . to insert a gap.


    palette               Description
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Stata palettes (view)
      s2                  15 colors as in Stata's s2color scheme; the default
      s1                  15 colors as in Stata's s1color scheme
      s1r                 15 colors as in Stata's s1rcolor scheme
      economist           15 colors as in Stata's economist scheme
      mono                15 gray scales as in Stata's monochrome schemes

    Other palettes (view)
      cblind              9 colorblind-friendly by Okabe and Ito (2002)
      plottig             15 colors as in plottig by Bischof (2017b)
      538                 6 + 7 colors as in 538 by Bischof (2017a)
      mrc                 7 colors as in mrc by Morris (2013)
      tfl                 8 colors as in tfl by Morris (2015)
      burd                9 + 4 colors as in burd by Briatte (2013)
      lean                15 gray scales as in lean by Juul (2003)

    Color generators
      hue                 evenly spaced HCL hues
      hcl                 HCL color generator
      hsv                 HSV color generator

    Collections
      colorbrewer         ColorBrewer palettes (colorbrewer2.org)
      ptol                color schemes from Tol (2012)
      d3                  categorical color schemes from D3.js
      lin                 semantic colors schemes by Lin et al. (2013)
      spmap               color schemes from spmap by Pisati (2007)
      sfso                color schemes used by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office

    Custom
      colorlist           custom list of colors
      myname              custom palette provided by program colorpalette_myname
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    palette_options       Description
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    n(#)                  specify size of palette (number of colors)
    select(numlist)       select/order elements
    reverse               arrange palette in reverse order
    intensity(numlist)    apply color intensity adjustment
    opacity(numlist)      set opacity, in percent
    other                 palette-specific options
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    graph_options         Description
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Main
      title(string)       custom graph title
      gropts(options)     options to be passed through to the graph command

    Syntax 1 only
      rows(#)             minimum number of rows; default is 5
      nograph             do not generate a graph

    Syntax 2 only
      horizontal          horizontal plot; the default
      vertical            vertical plot
      plabels(strlist)    custom palette labels
      lcolor(colorstyle)  custom outline color
      lwidth(lwstyle)     custom outline thickness
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Description

    colorpalette is a utility command to retrieve or display color palettes. Palette
    entries are returned in r().

    colorpalette is used by grstyle set.


Options

        +-----------------+
    ----+ Palette options +----------------------------------------------------------

    n(#) specifies the size of the palette (the number of elements). In many cases
        this just selects the first # elements from the palette and is thus
        equivalent to select(1/#). However, some color schemes (hue, hcl, hsv, ptol,
        sequential and diverging ColorBrewer palettes) return colors that adjust to
        the size of the palette.

    select(numlist) selects and orders the elements retrieved from the palette.

    reverse returns the palette in reverse order.

    intensity(numlist) applies color intensity adjustment. The values in numlist must
        be between 0 and 255. Values below 1 make the colors lighter; values larger
        than one make the colors darker. Specify multiple values to use different
        adjustments across the selected palette elements.  The list of adjustments
        will be recycled if it is shorter than the list of selected palette elements.
        Likewise, palette elements will be recycled if the list of adjustments is
        longer than the palette.

    opacity(numlist) sets the opacity level(s) (0: fully transparent, 100: fully
        opaque; Stata 15 required). Specify multiple values to use different opacity
        levels across the selected palette elements. The list of opacity levels will
        be recycled if it is shorter than the list of selected palette elements.
        Likewise, palette elements will be recycled if the list of opacity levels is
        longer than the palette.

    other are additional palette-specific options. See the descriptions of the
        palettes below.

        +---------------+
    ----+ Graph options +------------------------------------------------------------

    title(string) specifies a custom title for the graph.

    gropts(twoway_options) provides options to be passed through to the graph
        command.

    rows(#) specifies the minimum number of rows in the graph (syntax 1 only). The
        default is 5.

    nograph suppresses the graph (syntax 1 only).

    horizontal displays the palettes horizontally (syntax 2 only). This is the
        default.

    vertical displays the palettes vertically (syntax 2 only).

    plabels(strlist) provides custom labels for the palettes (syntax 2 only). Enclose
        labels with spaces in double quotes.

    lcolor(colorstyle) specifies a custom outline color (syntax 2 only).  The default
        is to use the same color for the outline as for the fill.

    lwidth(linewidthstyle) specifies a custom outline thickness (syntax 2 only). The
        default is lwidth(vthin).

Palettes

        +----+
    ----+ s2 +-----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette s2 (view) contains the 15 colors used for p1 to p15 in Stata's s2color
    scheme. s2 is the default palette.

        +----+
    ----+ s1 +-----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette s1 (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p15 in Stata's s1color
    scheme.

        +-----+
    ----+ s1r +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette s1r (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p15 in Stata's s1rcolor
    scheme.

        +-----------+
    ----+ economist +----------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette economist (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p15 in Stata's
    economist scheme.

        +------+
    ----+ mono +---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette mono (view) contains the gray scales used for p1 to p15 in Stata's
    monochrome schemes (s2mono, s1mono).

        +--------+
    ----+ cblind +-------------------------------------------------------------------

    The cblind palette (view) contains colorblind-friendly colors suggested by Okabe
    and Ito (2002), including gray as suggested at www.cookbook-r.com.  The same
    colors are also used (in different order and using gs10 for gray) in the
    plotplainblind and plottigblind schemes by Bischof (2017b). Type colorpalette
    cblind, select(1 2 4 5 9 8 7 3 6) for a palette equivalent to the one used in
    plotplainblind, and colorpalette cblind, select(1 4 5 9 8 7 3 6) for
    plottigblind.

        +---------+
    ----+ plottig +------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette plottig (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p15 in the plottig
    scheme by Bischof (2017b). Most of these colors are the same as the colors
    produced by the hue color generator with default options (view), although in
    different order.

        +-----+
    ----+ 538 +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette 538 (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p6, background, labels,
    axes etc., and CIs in the 538 scheme by Bischof (2017a). The palette replicates
    colors used at fivethirtyeight.com.

        +-----+
    ----+ mrc +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette mrc (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p7 in the mrc scheme by
    Morris (2013). These are colors according to guidelines by the UK Medical
    Research Council.

        +-----+
    ----+ tfl +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette tfl (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p8 in the tfl scheme by
    Morris (2015). The palette replicates Transport for London's corporate colors.

        +------+
    ----+ burd +---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette burd (view) contains the colors used for p1 to p9 and for CIs in the burd
    scheme by Briatte (2013). The p1 to p9 colors are a selection of colors from
    various ColorBrewer schemes.

        +------+
    ----+ lean +---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Palette lean (view) contains gray scales used for p1area to p15area in schemes
    lean1 and lean2 by Juul (2003).

        +-----+
    ----+ hue +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    The hue palette implements an algorithm that generates HCL colors with evenly
    spaced hues. The palette has been modeled after function hue_pal() from R's
    scales package by Hadley Wickham (see http://github.com/hadley/scales). This is
    the default color scheme used by R's ggplot2 for categorical data (see 
    http://ggplot2.tidyverse.org/reference/scale_hue.html). The hue palette with
    default options produces the same colors as the intense scheme of the hcl color
    generator.

    Syntax:

        hue [, hue(start end) chroma(#) luminance(#) direction(#) palette_options ]

    Options:

    hue(start end) sets the range of hues on the 360 degree color wheel. The default
        is hue(15 375). If the difference between start and end is a multiple of 360,
        end will be reduced by 360/n, where n is the number of requested colors (so
        that the space between the last and the first color is the same as between
        the other colors).

    chroma(#) sets the colorfulness (color intensity), with # >= 0. The default is
        chroma(100).

    luminance(#) sets the brightness (amount of gray), with # in [0, 100]. The
        default is luminance(65).

    direction(#) determines the direction to travel around the color wheel.
        direction(1), the default, travels clockwise; direction(-1) travels
        counter-clockwise.

    Examples:

        . colorpalette: hue, n(3) / hue, n(5) / hue, n(7) / hue, n(9)
        . colorpalette hue, n(5) hue(90 -30) chroma(50) luminance(70)

        +-----+
    ----+ hcl +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    The hcl palette is a HCL color generator (Hue-Chroma-Luminance). The
    implementation is based on R's colorspace package by Ihaka et al. (2016). Also
    see Zeileis et al. (2009) and hclwizard.org.

    Let h1 and h2 be two hues on the 360 degree color wheel, c1 and c2 two chroma
    levels, l1 and l2 two luminance levels, p1 and p2 two power parameters, and i an
    index from 1 to n, where n is the number of requested colors. The HCL colors are
    then generated according to the following formulas.

        Qualitative:
            H = h1 + (h2 - h1) * (i - 1) / (n - 1)
            C = c1
            L = l1

        Sequential:
            H = h2 - (h2 - h1) * j
            C = c2 - (c2 - c1) * j^p1
            L = l2 - (l2 - l1) * j^p2
            with j = (n - i) / (n - 1)

        Diverging:
            H = cond(j > 0, h1, h2)
            C = c1 * abs(j)^p1
            L = l2 - (l2 - l1) * abs(j)^p2
            with j = (n - 2*j + 1) / (n - 1)

    Syntax:

        hcl [, scheme hue(h1 [h2]) chroma(c1 [c2]) luminance(l1 [l2]) power(p1 [p2])
               palette_options ]

    Options:

    scheme picks the type of color formula (qualitative, sequential, or diverging)
        and sets the default parameter values. scheme can be one of following
        (qualitative is the default).

            Qualitative (view)  h1              h2   c1   l1
            qualitative         15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   60   70
            intense             15  h1+360*(n-1)/n  100   65
            dark                15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   80   60
            light               15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   50   80
            pastel              15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   35   85

            Sequential (view)   h1   h2   c1   c2   l1   l2   p1   p2
            sequential         260   h1   80   10   25   95    1   p1
            blues              260   h1   80   10   25   95    1   p1
            greens             145  125   80   10   25   95    1   p1
            grays                0   h1    0    0   15   95    1   p1
            oranges             40   h1  100   10   50   95    1   p1
            purples            280   h1   70   10   20   95    1   p1
            reds                10   20   80   10   25   95    1   p1
            heat                 0   90  100   30   50   90  0.2  1.0
            heat2                0   90   80   30   30   90  0.2  2.0
            terrain            130    0   80    0   60   95  0.1  1.0
            terrain2           130   30   65    0   45   90  0.5  1.5
            viridis            300   75   35   95   15   90  0.8  1.2
            plasma             100   h1   60  100   15   95  2.0  0.9
            redblue              0 -100   80   40   40   75  1.0  1.0

            Diverging (view)    h1   h2   c1   l1   l2   p1   p2
            diverging          260    0   80   30   95    1   p1
            bluered            260    0   80   30   95    1   p1
            bluered2           260    0  100   50   95    1   p1
            bluered3           180  330   60   75   95    1   p1
            greenorange        130   45  100   70   95    1   p1
            browngreen          55  160   60   35   95    1   p1
            pinkgreen          340  128   90   35   95    1   p1
            purplegreen        300  128   60   30   95    1   p1

    hue(h1 [h2]) overwrites the default values for h1 and h2. h1 and h2 are hues on
        the 360 degree color wheel.

    chroma(c1 [c2]) overwrites the default values for c1 and c2, with c# >= 0. c1 and
        c2 determine the colorfulness (color intensity).

    luminance(l1 [l2]) overwrites the default values for l1 and l2, with l# in [0,
        100]. l1 and l2 determine the brightness (amount of gray).

    power(p1 [p2]) overwrites the default values for p1 and p2, with p# > 0. p1 and
        p2 determine the shape of the transition between chroma and luminance levels.
        For linear transitions, set p#=1; p#>1 makes the transition faster, p#<1
        makes the transition slower.

        +-----+
    ----+ hsv +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    The hsv palette is a HSV color generator (Hue-Saturation-Value). The
    implementation is partially based on R's grDevices package (which is part of the
    R core) and partially on colorspace by Ihaka et al. (2016).

    Let h1 and h2 be two hues on the 360 degree color wheel, s1 and s2 two saturation
    levels, v1 and v2 two value levels, p1 and p2 two power parameters, and i an
    index from 1 to n, where n is the number of requested colors. The HSV colors are
    then generated according to the following formulas.

        Qualitative:
            H = h1 + (h2 - h1) * (i - 1) / (n - 1)
            S = s1
            V = v1

        Sequential:
            H = h2 - (h2 - h1) * j
            S = s2 - (s2 - s1) * j^p1
            V = v2 - (v2 - v1) * j^p2
            with j = (n - i) / (n - 1)

        Diverging:
            H = cond(j > 0, h1, h2)
            S = s1 * abs(j)^p1
            V = v2 - (v2 - v1) * abs(j)^p2
            with j = (n - 2*j + 1) / (n - 1)

    Syntax:

        hsv [, scheme hue(h1 [h2]) saturation(s1 [s2]) value(v1 [v2]) power(p1 [p2])
               palette_options ]

    Options:

    scheme picks the type of color formula (qualitative, sequential, or diverging)
        and sets the default parameter values. scheme can be one of following
        (qualitative is the default).

            Qualitative (view)  h1              h2   s1   v1
            qualitative         15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   .4  .85
            intense             15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   .6  .9
            dark                15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   .6  .7
            light               15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   .3  .9
            pastel              15  h1+360*(n-1)/n   .2  .9
            rainbow             15  h1+360*(n-1)/n    1   1

            Sequential (view)   h1   h2   s1   s2   v1   v2   p1   p2
            sequential         240   h1   .8  .05   .6   1   1.2   p1
            blues              240   h1   .8  .05   .6   1   1.2   p1
            greens             140  120   1   .1    .3   1   1.2   p1
            grays                0   h1   0    0    .1  .95  1.0   p1
            oranges             30   h1   1   .1    .9   1   1.2   p1
            purples            270   h1   1   .1    .6   1   1.2   p1
            reds                 0   20   1   .1    .6   1   1.2   p1
            heat                 0   60   1   .2     1   1   0.3   p1
            terrain            120    0   1    0    .65 .95  0.7  1.5

            Diverging (view)    h1   h2   s1   v1   v2   p1   p2
            diverging          240    0   .8   .6  .95  1.2   p1
            bluered            240    0   .8   .6  .95  1.2   p1
            bluered2           240    0   .6   .8  .95  1.2   p1
            bluered3           175  320   .6   .8  .95  1.2   p1
            greenorange        130   40   1    .8  .95  1.2   p1
            browngreen          40  150   .8   .6  .95  1.2   p1
            pinkgreen          330  120   .9   .6  .95  1.2   p1
            purplegreen        290  120   .7   .5  .95  1.2   p1

    hue(h1 [h2]) overwrites the default values for h1 and h2. h1 and h2 are hues on
        the 360 degree color wheel.

    saturation(s1 [s2]) sets overwrites the default values for s1 and s2, with s# in
        [0, 1]. s1 and s2 determine the colorfulness (color intensity).

    value(v1 [v2]) overwrites the default values for v1 and v2, with v# in [0, 1]. l1
        and l2 determine the brightness (amount of gray).

    power(p1 [p2]) overwrites the default values for p1 and p2, with p# > 0. p1 and
        p2 determine the shape of the transition between saturation and value levels.
        For linear transitions, set p#=1; p#>1 makes the transition faster, p#<1
        makes the transition slower.

        +-------------+
    ----+ ColorBrewer +--------------------------------------------------------------

    ColorBrewer is a set of color schemes developed by Brewer et al. (2003; also see
    Brewer 2016). The colors are licensed under Apache License Version 2.0; see the
    copyright notes at ColorBrewer_updates.html. For more information on ColorBrewer
    also see http://colorbrewer2.org/. The RGB values for the implementation of the
    colors in colorpalette have been taken from the Excel spreadsheet provided at
    ColorBrewer_RGB.html.  The CMYK values have been taken from file cb.csv provided
    at GitHub. ColorBrewer palettes for Stata are also provided by Gomez (2015) and
    by Buchanan (2015).

    The syntax for the ColorBrewer palettes is

        scheme [, cmyk palette_options ]

    where scheme is one of the following

            Qualitative (view)
            Accent         8 accented colors for qualitative data
            Dark2          8 dark colors for qualitative data
            Paired         12 paired colors for qualitative data
            Pastel1        9 pastel colors for qualitative data
            Pastel2        8 pastel colors for qualitative data
            Set1           9 colors for qualitative data
            Set2           8 colors for qualitative data
            Set3           12 colors for qualitative data

            Sequential (single hue) (view)
            Blues          light blue to blue (3-9 colors)
            Greens         light green to green (3-9 colors)
            Greys          light gray to gray (3-9 colors)
            Oranges        light orange to orange (3-9 colors)
            Purples        light purple to purple (3-9 colors)
            Reds           light red to red (3-9 colors)

            Sequential (multi-hue) (view)
            BuGn           light blue to green (3-9 colors)
            BuPu           light blue to purple (3-9 colors)
            GnBu           light green to blue (3-9 colors)
            OrRd           light orange to red (3-9 colors)
            PuBu           light purple to blue (3-9 colors)
            PuBuGn         light purple over blue to green (3-9 colors)
            PuRd           light purple to red (3-9 colors)
            RdPu           light red to purple (3-9 colors)
            YlGn           light yellow to green (3-9 colors)
            YlGnBu         light yellow over green to blue (3-9 colors)
            YlOrBr         light yellow over orange to brown (3-9 colors)
            YlOrRd         light yellow over orange to red (3-9 colors)

            Diverging (view)
            BrBG           brown to green, light gray mid (3-11 colors)
            PiYG           pink to green, light gray mid (3-11 colors)
            PRGn           purple to green, light gray mid (3-11 colors)
            PuOr           purple to orange, light gray mid (3-11 colors)
            RdBu           red to blue, light gray mid (3-11 colors)
            RdGy           red to gray, white mid (3-11 colors)
            RdYlBu         red to blue, yellow mid (3-11 colors)
            RdYlGn         red to green, yellow mid (3-11 colors)
            Spectral       red - orange - yellow - green - blue (3-11 colors)

    and option cmyk requests the CMYK variant of the scheme. The default is to use
        the RGB variant.

        +------+
    ----+ ptol +---------------------------------------------------------------------

    The ptol collection provides color schemes suggested by Tol (2012). The syntax is

        ptol [, scheme palette_options ]

    where scheme is one of the following (view).

            qualitative    1-12 qualitative colors; the default
            diverging      3-11 diverging colors; very similar to reverse RdYlBu
            rainbow        4-12 rainbow colors

        +----+
    ----+ d3 +-----------------------------------------------------------------------

    The d3 collection provides color schemes from D3.js, using the color values found
    at github.com/d3. The syntax is

        d3 [, scheme palette_options ]

    where scheme is one of the following (view).

            10     10 categorical colors; the default; same as first 10 colors in
                     tableau
            20     20 categorical colors in pairs; same colors as in tableau, but
                     ordered differently
            20b    20 categorical colors in groups of four
            20c    20 categorical colors in groups of four

        +-----+
    ----+ lin +----------------------------------------------------------------------

    The lin collection provides semantic color schemes suggested by Lin et al.
    (2013). The values of the semantic colors have been taken from the source code of
    the brewscheme package by Buchanan (2015) (brewextra.ado, version 1.0.0, 21 March
    2016); the values of the tableau palette have been taken from code provided by
    the authors at GitHub.

    The syntax is

        lin [, scheme algorithm palette_options ]

    where scheme is one of the following

            tableau        20 categorical colors; the default
            carcolor       6 car colors
            food           7 food colors
            features       5 feature colors
            activities     5 activity colors
            fruits         7 fruit colors
            vegetables     7 vegetable colors
            drinks         7 drinks colors
            brands         7 brands colors

    and option algorithm requests algorithm selected colors. The default is to return
    the colors selected by Turkers (in case of carcolor, food, features, activities)
    or by the expert (in case of fruits, vegetables, drinks, brands). algorithm has
    no effect for tableau.

        +-------+
    ----+ spmap +--------------------------------------------------------------------

    The spmap collection provides color schemes from the spmap package by Pisati
    (2007). The implementation is based on code from spmap_color.ado (version 1.3.0,
    13 March 2017).

    The syntax is

        spmap [, scheme palette_options ]

    where scheme is one of the following (view).

            blues          light blue to blue (2-99 colors); the default
            greens         light green to green (2-99 colors)
            greys          light gray to black (2-99 colors)
            reds           light red to red (2-99 colors)
            rainbow        2-99 rainbow colors
            heat           2-16 heat colors
            terrain        2-16 terrain colors
            topological    2-16 topological colors

        +------+
    ----+ sfso +---------------------------------------------------------------------

    The sfso collection provides color schemes by the Swiss Federal Statistical
    Office (using hex and CMYK codes found in Bundesamt für Statistik 2017). The
    syntax is

        sfso [, scheme cmyk palette_options ]

    where scheme is one of the following

            Sequential (view)
            brown          dark brown to light brown (6 colors)
            orange         dark orange to light orange (6 colors)
            red            dark red to light red (6 colors)
            pink           dark pink to light pink (6 colors)
            purple         dark purple to light purple (6 colors)
            violet         dark violet to light violet (6 colors)
            blue           dark blue to light blue (7 colors); the default
            ltblue         lighter version of blue (6 colors)
            turquoise      dark turquoise to light turquoise (6 colors)
            green          dark green to light green (6 colors)
            olive          dark olive to light olive (6 colors)
            black          dark gray to light gray (6 colors)

            Semantic (view)
            parties        colors used by the SFSO for Swiss parties (11 colors)
            languages      colors used by the SFSO for languages (5 colors)
            votes          colors used by the SFSO for results from votes (10 colors)

    and option cmyk requests the CMYK variant of the scheme. The default is to use
        the RGB variant.

        +-----------+
    ----+ colorlist +----------------------------------------------------------------

    Instead of using a named color palette you can provide a custom palette by
    specifying a list of colorstyles (named colors, RBG colors specified as "# # #",
    CMYK colors specified as "# # # #", or HSV colors specified as "hsv # # #").
    Example (navy in 4 different ways):

        . colorpalette navy "26 71 111" "85 40 0 144" "hsv 209 .766 .435"

    It is also possible to specify RGB colors using their 6-digit hex codes (or
    3-digit abbreviations; see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_colors for background
    information; some websites providing collections of colors are
    www.w3schools.com/colors, htmlcolorcodes.com, or www.color-hex.com). Start the
    color specification with a hash in this case. The hex codes will be translated to
    RGB. Example:

        . colorpalette #30C #3300cc #FFC0CB #ffc0cb

    Furthermore, HCL colors can be provided as "hcl # # #", where the first number
    specifies the hue (dominant wavelength in degrees of the 360 degree color wheel),
    the second number specifies the chroma (colorfulness, color intensity; # >= 0)
    and the third number specifies the luminance (brightness, amount of gray; # in
    [0, 100]). HCL colors will be translated to RGB. Example:

        . colorpalette "hcl 0 100 70" "hcl 120 100 70" "hcl 240 100 70"

    Color intensity adjustment may be requested by adding adjustment factor *# to a
    color. Example (original navy and navy with 70% intensity in 3 different ways):

        . colorpalette navy navy*.7 "26 71 111*.7" #1a476f*.7

    Furthermore, since Stata 15, colors may be complemented by opacity specified as
    %#. Example (original navy and navy with 80% opacity in 3 different ways):

        . colorpalette navy navy%80 "26 71 111%80" #1a476f%80

    Intensity and opacity can be combined:

        . colorpalette navy navy*.7 navy%80 navy*.7%80

        +--------+
    ----+ myname +-------------------------------------------------------------------

    An own named palette can be provided in form of a program called
    colorpalette_myname, where myname is the name of the palette. Palette myname will
    then be available to colorpalette like any other palette. Your program should
    return the color definitions as a comma-separated list in local macro P. In
    addition you may provide a comma-separated list of descriptions in local macro I.
    For example, the following program provides a palette called bootstrap3
    containing the semantic colors used for buttons in Bootstrap v3.3:

        program colorpalette_bootstrap3
            c_local P #ffffff,#337ab7,#5cb85c,#5bc0de,#f0ad4e,#d9534f, ///
                      #e6e6e6,#286090,#449d44,#31b0d5,#ec971f,#c9302c
            c_local I default,primary,success,info,warning,danger,default.focus, ///
                primary.focus,success.focus,info.focus,warning.focus,danger.focus
        end

    After defining the program, you can, for example, type

        . colorpalette bootstrap3, rows(6)

    to view the palette. More complicated definitions of palettes that take account
    of options are also possible. See the palette definitions colorpalette.ado for
    examples.


Example

    Apart from viewing color palettes, colorpalette is useful for retrieving colors
    that can then be passed through to a graph command. Here is an example of a
    contour plot using the terrain scheme from the hcl palette:

        . sysuse sandstone, clear
        . colorpalette hcl, terrain n(10) nograph
        . twoway contour depth northing easting, levels(`r(n)') ccolors(`r(p)')


Saved results

    colorpalette stores the following in r() (Syntax 1 only):

    Scalars    
      r(n)            number of returned colors

    Macros     
      r(ptype)        color
      r(pname)        name of palette or custom
      r(pnote)        additional information on palette (if provided)
      r(p)            space separated list of colors
      r(p#)           #th color
      r(p#info)       info of #th color (if provided)


References

    Bischof, D. 2017a. G538SCHEMES: module to provide graphics schemes for
        http://fivethirtyeight.com. Available from 
        http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s458404.html.
    Bischof, D. 2017b. New graphic schemes for Stata: plotplain and plottig.  The
        Stata Journal 17(3): 748–759.
    Briatte, F. 2013. SCHEME-BURD: Stata module to provide a ColorBrewer-inspired
        graphics scheme with qualitative and blue-to-red diverging colors. Available
        from http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s457623.html.
    Brewer, C. A., G. W. Hatchard, M. A. Harrower. 2003. ColorBrewer in Print: A
        Catalog of Color Schemes for Maps.  Cartography and Geographic Information
        Science 30(1): 5–32.
    Brewer, C. A. 2016. Designing Better Maps. A Guide for GIS Users. 2nd ed.
        Redlands, CA: Esri Press.
    Buchanan, B. 2015. BREWSCHEME: Stata module for generating customized graph
        scheme files. Available from 
        http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s458050.html.
    Bundesamt für Statistik 2017. Layoutrichtlinien. Gestaltungs und
        Redaktionsrichtlinien für Publikationen, Tabellen und grafische Assets.
        Version 1.1.1. Neuchâtel.
    Gomez, M. 2015. Stata command to generate color schemes. Available from 
        http://github.com/matthieugomez/stata-colorscheme.
    Ihaka, R., P. Murrell, K. Hornik, J. C. Fisher, R. Stauffer, A. Zeileis.  2016.
        colorspace: Color Space Manipulation. R package version 1.3-2.  Available
        from http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=colorspace.
    Juul, S. 2003. Lean mainstream schemes for Stata 8 graphics. The Stata Journal
        3(3): 295-301.
    Lin, S., J. Fortuna, C. Kulkarni, M. Stone, J. Heer. 2013. Selecting
        Semantically-Resonant Colors for Data Visualization. Computer Graphics Forum
        32(3pt4): 401-410.
    Morris, T. 2013. SCHEME-MRC: Stata module to provide graphics scheme for UK
        Medical Research Council. Available from 
        http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s457703.html.
    Morris, T. 2015. SCHEME-TFL: Stata module to provide graph scheme, based on
        Transport for London's corporate colour pallette. Available from 
        http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s458103.html.
    Okabe, M., K. Ito. 2002. Color Universal Design (CUD). How to make figures and
        presentations that are friendly to Colorblind people. Available from 
        http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/.
    Pisati, M. 2007. SPMAP: Stata module to visualize spatial data. Available from 
        http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s456812.html.
    Tol, P. 2012. Colour Schemes. SRON Technical Note, Doc. no. SRON/EPS/TN/09-002.
        Available from https://personal.sron.nl/~pault/colourschemes.pdf.
    Zeileis, A., K. Hornik, P. Murrell. 2009.  Escaping RGBland: Selecting Colors for
        Statistical Graphics.  Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 53:
        3259-3270.


Author

    Ben Jann, University of Bern, ben.jann@soz.unibe.ch

    Thanks for citing this software as follows:

        Jann, B. (2017). palettes: Stata module providing color palettes, symbol
        palettes, and line pattern palettes. Available from 
        http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s458444.html.


Also see

    Online:  help for symbolpalette, linepalette, grstyle set, graph, colorstyle