help estout                                   also see: esttab, eststo, estadd, estpost
                                               http://repec.sowi.unibe.ch/stata/estout/
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Title

    estout -- Making regression tables from stored estimates


Table of contents

    Syntax
    Description
    Options
    Examples
    Remarks
    Saved results
    Backmatter


Syntax

        estout [ what ] [ using filename ] [ , options ]


    what                     description
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    namelist                 tabulate stored estimation sets; namelist is
                               a name, a list of names, or _all; the * and
                               ? wildcards are allowed; a name may also be
                               ., meaning the current (active) estimates

    matrix(name[, subopts])  tabulate matrix name
    e(name[, subopts])       tabulate matrix e(name)
    r(name[, subopts])       tabulate matrix r(name)
      subopts:
        fmt(fmtlist)         set the display format(s)
        transpose            tabulate transposed matrix
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------


    options                          description
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    Parameter statistics
      cells(elements and subopts)    contents of the table cells, where
                                       an element's subopts are in paren-
                                       theses, i.e. element[(subopts)]
          elements:
          b                          raw coefficient (point estimate)
          se                         standard error
          var                        variance
          t                          t or z statistic
          z                          t or z statistic (synonym for t)
          p                          p-value
          ci                         confidence interval
          ci_l                       lower bound of confidence interval
          ci_u                       upper bound of confidence interval
          _star                      "significance stars"
          _sign                      sign of point estimate
          _sigsign                   sign and significance of estimate
          .                          null element (empty cell)
          &                          combine elements in single cell
          myel                       results from e(myel)
          myel[#]                    results from row # in e(myel)
          myel[rowname]              results from row rowname in e(myel)


          subopts (for each element,
                except for . and &):
          [no]star                   attach "significance stars"
          fmt(fmt [fmt ...])         set the display format(s)
          label(string)              define a label for element
          par[(l r)] | nopar         place results in parentheses
          vacant(string)             print string if coefficient is absent
          drop(droplist)             drop certain individual results
          keep(keeplist)             keep certain individual results
          pattern(pattern)           model selection
          pvalue(name)               set p-values for star (default: p)
          [no]abs                    use absolute t-statistics
          [no]transpose              transpose e(myel) for tabulation

      drop(droplist)                 drop individual coefficients
      [no]omitted                    include omitted coefficients
      [no]baselevels                 include base levels
      keep(keeplist)                 keep individual coefficients
      order(orderlist)               change order of coefficients
      indicate(groups [, subopt])    indicate presence of parameters
        subopt: labels(yes no)       redefine "Yes" and "No" labels
      rename(old new [old new ...])  rename individual coefficients
      equations(eqmatchlist)         match the models' equations
      eform[(pattern)] | noeform     report exponentiated coefficients
      transform(list [, subopt])     apply transformations to coefficients
        subopt: pattern(pattern)])   select models
      margin[(u|c|p)] | nomargin     report marginal effects after mfx
      discrete(string) | nodiscrete  identify 0/1 variables (if margin)
      meqs(eq_list)                  select equations for marginal effects
      dropped[(string)] | nodropped  indicate null coefficients as dropped
      level(#)                       set level for confidence intervals

    Summary statistics
      stats(scalarlist[, subopts])   display summary statistics at the
                                     bottom of the table
        subopts:
          fmt(fmt [fmt ...])         set the display formats
          labels(strlist[,           label the summary statistics
             label_subopts])
          star[(sca'list)] | nostar  denote the model significance
          layout(array)              arrange the summary statistics
          pchar(symbol)              placeholder in layout(); default is @

    Significance stars
      starlevels(levelslist)         define thresholds and symbols,
                                       where 'levelslist' is 'symbol #
                                       [symbol # ...]' with # in (0,1] and
                                       listed in descending order
      stardrop(droplist)             drop stars for individual coefs
      starkeep(keeplist)             keep stars for individual coefs
      [no]stardetach                 display the stars in their own column

    Layout
      varwidth(#)                    set width of the table's left stub
      modelwidth(# [# ...])          set width of the results columns
      [no]unstack                    place equations from multiple-
                                       equation models in separate columns
      begin(string)                  specify the beginning of the rows
      delimiter(string)              specify the column delimiter
      end(string)                    specify the ending of the table rows
      incelldelimiter(string)        specify delimiter within cell
      dmarker(string)                define the decimal marker
      msign(string)                  define the minus sign
      [no]lz                         print the leading zero of fixed
                                       format numbers in (-1,1)
      extracols(numlist)             add empty column to the table
      substitute(subst)              apply end-of-pipe substitutions, where
                                       'subst' is 'from to [from to ... ]'

    Labeling
      [no]label                      make use of variable labels
      [no]abbrev                     abbreviate long names and labels
      [no]wrap                       wrap long labels (if space permits)
      interaction(string)            specify interaction operator
      title(string)                  specify a title for the table
      note(string)                   specify a note for the table
      [no]legend                     add a significance symbols legend
      prehead(strlist)               add text before the table heading
      posthead(strlist)              add text after the table heading
      prefoot(strlist)               add text before the table footer
      postfoot(strlist)              add text after the table footer
      hlinechar(string)              specify look of @hline
      varlabels(matchlist[, sub.])   relabel the parameters
        subopts:
          blist(matchlist)           assign prefixes to certain rows
          elist(matchlist)           assign suffixes to certain rows
          label_subopts
      labcol2(strlist[, subopts])    add a second labeling column
        subopts:
          title(strlist)             add column title in table header
          width(#)                   set width of column
      refcat(matchlist[, subopts])   add reference category information
        subopts:
          label(string) | nolabel    redefine the "ref." label
          below                      change positioning of refcat
      mlabels(strlist[, subopts])    label the models
        subopts:
          [no]depvars                use the name/label of the dependent
                                         variable as model label
          [no]titles                 use estimates title as model label
          [no]numbers                number models labels consecutively
          label_subopts
      collabels(strlist[,            label the columns within models
        label_subopts])
      eqlabels(strlist[, subopts])   label the equations
        subopts:
          [no]merge                  merge equation and parameter labels
          label_subopts
      mgroups(strlist[, subopts])    define and label groups of models
        subopts:
          pattern(pattern)           define the grouping of the models
          label_subopts
      numbers[(l r)] | nonumbers     add a row containing model numbers

    Output
      [no]replace                    overwrite an existing file
      [no]append                     append the output to an existing file
      [no]type                       print the table in the results window
      [no]showtabs                   display tabs as <T>s
      topfile(filename)              insert file contents above table
      bottomfile(filename)           insert file contents below table

    Defaults
      style(style)                   specify a style for the output table

        styles:
          smcl                       SMCL formatted table (screen default)
          tab                        tab delimited table (export default)
          fixed                      fixed format table
          tex                        table for use with LaTeX
          html                       table for use with HTML
          mystyle                    user defined addition
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------


    label_subopts                    Description
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
      [no]none                       suppress the labels
      prefix(string)                 add a common prefix
      suffix(string)                 add a common suffix
      begin(strlist)                 add an overall prefix
      [no]first                      print the first occurrence of begin()
      end(strlist)                   add an overall suffix
      [no]last                       print the last occurrence of end()
      replace                        replace global begin()/end()
      [no]span                       span columns if appropriate
      erepeat(string)                add a "span" suffix
      lhs(string)                    label the table's left stub
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------


Description

    estout assembles a table of coefficients, "significance stars", summary
    statistics, standard errors, t- or z-statistics, p-values, confidence intervals,
    and other statistics for one or more models previously fitted and stored by 
    estimates store or eststo.  It then displays the table in Stata's results window
    or writes it to a text file specified by using. The default is to use SMCL
    formatting tags and horizontal lines to structure the table. However, if using is
    specified, a tab-delimited table without lines is produced.

    namelist provides the names of the stored estimation sets to be tabulated. You
    may use the * and ? wildcards in namelist. The results estimated last may be
    indicated by a period (.), even if they have not yet been stored. If no model is
    specified, estout tabulates the estimation sets stored by eststo (see help 
    eststo) or, if no such estimates are present, the currently active estimates
    (i.e. the model fit last).  estout may be used after any estimation command that
    returns its results in e().

    See the Introduction in the Examples section for an introduction on using estout.
    See help estimates for general information about managing estimation results.
    Furthermore, see help eststo for an alternative to the estimates store command.

    The default for estout is to produce a plain table containing point estimates.
    Producing a fully formatted end-product may involve specifying many options.
    However, note that a simple-to-use estout wrapper producing pre-formatted
    publication style tables is available as esttab. Furthermore, use estadd to make
    additional results available for tabulation (such as the standardized
    coefficients or the means and standard deviations of the regressors) and estpost
    to tabulate results from non-estimation commands such as summarize or tabulate.

    estout can also be used to tabulate the contents of a Stata matrix (see help 
    matrix). Type estout marix(name), where name is the name of the matrix, instead
    of providing a namelist of stored estimation sets. See the examples below.
    Alternatively, you may also specify e(name) or r(name) to tabulate an e()-matrix
    or an r()-matrix. The cells() option is disabled if tabulating a matrix.

    Programms similar to estout include outreg by John Luke Gallup, outreg2 by Roy
    Wada, modltbl by John H. Tyler, mktab by Nicholas Winter, outtex by Antoine
    Terracol, or est2tex by Marc Muendler. Also see Newson (2003) for a very
    appealing approach.


Options

    Contents

        Parameter statistics
        Summary statistics
        Significance stars
        Layout
        Labeling
        Output
        Defaults
        label_subopts
        matrix_subopts

        +----------------------+
    ----+ Parameter statistics +-----------------------------------------------------

    cells(array) specifies the parameter statistics to be reported and how they are
        to be arranged. The default is for cells to report point estimates only, i.e.
        cells(b). cells(none) may be used to completely suppress the printing of
        parameter statistics.  Alternatively, cells(b se) would result in the
        reporting of point estimates and standard errors. Multiple statistics are
        placed in separate rows beneath one another by default. However, elements of
        array that are listed in quotes or in parentheses, e.g.  "b se" or `"b se"'
        or (b se), are placed beside one another. For example, cells("b p" se) or,
        equivalently, cells((b p) se) would produce a table with point estimates and
        p-values beside one another in first row and standard errors in the second
        row beneath the point estimates.

        The parameter statistics available are b (point estimates), se (standard
        errors), var (variance), t (t/z-statistics), z (synonym for t), p (p-values),
        and ci (confidence intervals; to display the lower and upper bounds in
        separate cells use ci_l and ci_u). Any additional parameter statistics
        included in the e()-returns for the models can be tabulated as well. If, for
        example, e(beta) contains the standardized coefficients, type cells(beta) to
        tabulate them (use estadd to add statistics such as the standardized
        coefficients to the e()-returns of a model). The syntax name[#] or
        name[rowname] can be used to refer to specific rows in e(name). For example,
        type cell(ci_bc[1] ci_bc[2]) or cell(ci_bc[ll] ci_bc[ul]) to tabulate the
        lower and upper bounds of the bias-corrected confidence intervals after 
        bootstrap.  The default is to report the results from the first row.  Also
        see the eform and transform() options for more information on the kinds of
        statistics that can be displayed.

        Further available elements in array are _star, _sign, and _sigsign. _star
        causes stars denoting the significance of the coefficients to be printed (*
        for p<.05, ** for p<.01, and *** for p<.001; customizable via the
        starlevels() option below).  _star places the significance stars in their own
        cells. See the star suboption below if you want to attach the stars to
        another element. _sign prints the signs of the coefficients ("+", "-", or
        "0"). _sigsign, a combination of _star and _sign, repeats the signs of the
        coefficients where the number of repetitions reflects the level of
        significance (non-significant coefficients are left empty; however, you may
        set the first level to 1 in the starlevels() option).

        Finally, . and & may be used in array. . inserts a "null" element. Use this
        to add empty cells. For example, cells("b p" ". se") would produce a table
        with point estimates in the first column and p-values and standard errors
        beneath one another in the second column. & is used to combine elements in
        the same cell. Use the incelldelimiter() option to specify the text to be
        printed between the combined elements (the default is to print a single
        blank). For example, in HTML, use cell(b & se) and incelldelimiter(<br>) to
        include point estimates and standard errors in a single cell and insert a
        line break between them.

        A set of suboptions may be specified in parentheses for each element named in
        array (except for . and &). For example, to add significance stars to the
        coefficients and place the standard errors in parentheses, specify
        cells(b(star) se(par)). The following suboptions are available. Use:

            star to specify that stars denoting the significance of the coefficients
                be attached to the statistic: * for p<.05, ** for p<.01, and *** for
                p<.001. The symbols and the values for the thresholds and the number
                of levels are fully customizable (see the Significance stars
                options).

            fmt(fmt [fmt ...]) to specify the display format(s) of a statistic. It
                defaults to %9.0g or the format for the first statistic in cells().
                If only one format is specified, it is used for all occurrences of
                the statistic. For example, type

                    . estout ..., cells("b(fmt(3)) t(fmt(2))")

                to print coefficients and t-values beside one another using three
                decimal places for coefficients and two decimal places for t-values.
                If multiple formats are specified, the first format is used for the
                first regressor in the estimates table, the second format for the
                second regressor, and so on. The last format is used for the
                remaining regressors if the number of regressors in the table is
                greater than the number of specified formats.  For instance, type

                    . estout ..., cells(b(fmt(3 4 2)))

                to use three decimal places for the first coefficient, four decimal
                places for the second, and two decimal places for all remaining
                coefficients. Note that, regardless of the display format chosen,
                leading and trailing blanks are removed from the numbers. White space
                can be added by specifying a modelwidth() (see the Layout options).
                fmt may be any of Stata's numerical display formats, e.g., %9.0g or
                %8.2f, an integer # such as 1 or 3 to use a fixed format with #
                decimal places, or a# such as a1 or a3 to use estout's adaptive
                display format (see Numerical formats in the Remarks section for
                details).

            label(string) to specify a label to appear in the column heading. The
                default is the name of the statistic.

            par[(l r)] to specify that the statistic in question be placed in
                parentheses. It is also possible to specify custom "parentheses". For
                example, se(par({ })) would display the standard errors in curly
                brackets. Or, se(par(`"="("' `")""')) will write parentheses in a way
                that Excel can recognize. For ci the syntax is:

                    ci(par[(l m r)])

            vacant(string) to print string if a coefficient is not in the model. The
                default is to leave such cells empty.

            drop(droplist [, relax]) to cause certain individual statistics to be
                dropped. For example, specifying t(drop(_cons)) suppresses the
                t-statistics for the constants.  droplist is specified as in the
                global drop() option (see below).

            keep(keeplist [, relax]) to cause certain individual statistics to be
                kept. For example, the specification t(keep(mpg)) would display the
                t-statistics exclusively for the variable mpg. keeplist is specified
                analogous to droplist in drop() (see below).

            pattern(pattern) to designate a pattern of models for which the
                statistics are to be reported, where the pattern consists of zeros
                and ones. A 1 indicates that the statistic be printed; 0 indicates
                that it be suppressed. For example beta(pattern(1 0 1)) would result
                in beta being reported for the first and third models, but not for
                the second.

            pvalue(name) to specify the p-values used to determine the significance
                stars (see star above). The default is pvalue(p), indicating that the
                standard p-values are to be used (i.e. the p-values computed form the
                coefficients vector and the variance matrix). Alternatively, specify
                pvalue(mypvalue), in which case the significance stars will be
                determined from the values in e(mypvalue). Values outside [0,1] will
                be ignored.

            abs to specify that absolute t-statistics be used instead of regular
                t-statistics (relevant only if used with t()).

            transpose to specify that e(myel) be transposed for tabulation.

    drop(droplist [, relax]) identifies the coefficients to be dropped from the
        table. A droplist comprises one or more specifications, separated by white
        space. A specification can be either a parameter name (e.g. price), an
        equation name followed by a colon (e.g. mean:), or a full name (e.g.
        mean:price). You may use the * and ? wildcards in equation names and
        parameter names. Be sure to refer to the matched equation names, and not to
        the original equation names in the models, when using the equations() option
        to match equations.  Specify the relax suboption to allow droplist to contain
        elements for which no match can be found.

    omitted includes omitted coefficients (only relevant in Stata 11 or newer). This
        is the default. Type noomitted to drop omitted coefficients.

    baselevels includes base levels of factor variables (only relevant in Stata 11 or
        newer). This is the default. Type nobaselevels to drop base levels of factor
        variables.

    keep(keeplist [, relax]) selects the coefficients to be included in the table.
        keeplist is specified analogous to droplist in drop() (see above). Note that
        keep() does not change the the order of the coefficients. Use order() to
        change the order of coefficients.

    order(orderlist) changes the order of the coefficients and equations within the
        table. orderlist is specified analogous to droplist in drop() (see above).
        Reordering of coefficients is performed equation by equation, unless
        equations are explicitly specified. Coefficients and equations that do not
        appear in orderlist are placed last (in their original order). Extra table
        rows are inserted for elements in orderlist that are not found in the table.

    indicate(groups [, labels(yes no)]) indicates for each model (or, if unstack is
        specified, for each equation) the presence of certain groups of coefficients
        at the end of the table body. The syntax for groups is

            "group" [ "group" ... ]

        where a group is

            [name = ] list

        and list is a list of coefficient specifications as defined in drop() above.
        The single groups should be enclosed in quotes unless there is only one group
        and name is specified. Note that name may contain spaces.

        For example, if some of the models contain a set of year dummies, say y1 y2
        y3, specify

            estout ..., indicate(year effects = y1 y2 y3)

        to drop the dummies from the table and add a "year effects" row containing
        "Yes" for models in which at least one of the dummies is present, and "No"
        for the other models. Furthermore, if some models also contain a set of
        region dummies, say reg_1 through reg_17, you could type

            estout ..., indicate("years = y1 y2 y3" "regions = reg_*")

        Use the labels() suboption to redefine the indication labels to be printed in
        the table. The default is labels(Yes No). Use quotes if the labels include
        spaces, e.g. labels("in model"  "not in model").

    rename(matchlist) changes the names of individual coefficients, where matchlist
        is

            oldname newname [oldname newname ...]

        oldname can be a parameter name (e.g. price) or a full name including an
        equation specification (e.g. mean:price) (abbreviation and wildcards not
        allowed); newname is a name without equation specification and must not
        already occur in a model's equation.  rename() is applied before matching the
        models and equations and can therefore be used to merge different
        coefficients across models (or equations if unstack is specified) into a
        single table row. See the varlabels() option if you are interested in
        relabeling coefficients after matching models and equations.

    equations(matchlist) specifies how the models' equations are to be matched. The
        default is to match all first equations into one equation (named main, if the
        equations have different names) and match the remaining equations by name.
        Specify equations("") to match all equations by name. Alternatively, specify
        matchlist, which has the syntax

                term [, term ... ]

        where term is

                [eqname =] #:#...:#              (syntax 1)

                [eqname =] #                     (syntax 2)

        In syntax 1, each # is a number or a period (.).  If a number, it specifies
        the position of the equation in the corresponding model; 1:3:1 would indicate
        that equation 1 in the first model matches equation 3 in the second, which
        matches equation 1 in the third.  A period indicates that there is no
        corresponding equation in the model; 1:.:1 indicates that equation 1 in the
        first matches equation 1 in the third.

        In syntax 2, you specify just one number, say, 1 or 2, and that is shorthand
        for 1:1...:1 or 2:2...:2, meaning that equation 1 matches across all models
        specified or that equation 2 matches across all models specified.

        eqname is used to name the matched equations. If it is suppressed, a name
        such as #1 or #2 etc. is used, depending on the position of the term. For
        example, equations(1) indicates that all first equations are to be matched
        into one equation named #1. All equations not matched by position are matched
        by name.

    eform[(pattern)] displays the coefficient table in exponentiated form. The
        exponent of b is displayed in lieu of the untransformed coefficient; standard
        errors and confidence intervals are transformed as well. Specify a pattern if
        the exponentiation is to be applied only for certain models. For instance,
        eform(1 0 1) would transform the statistics for Models 1 and 3, but not for
        Model 2. Note that, unlike regress and estimates table, estout in eform-mode
        does not suppress the display of the intercept. To drop the intercept in
        eform-mode, specify drop(_cons). Note: eform is implemented via the
        transform() option. If both options are specified, transform() takes
        precedence over eform.

    transform(list [, pattern(pattern)]) displays transformed coefficients, standard
        errors and confidence intervals. list may be

            fx dfx

        where fx is the transformation function and dfx is its first derivative. fx
        is applied to coefficients and confidence intervals, that is, fx(b) and
        fx(ci) is displayed instead of b and ci. dfx is used to delta transform
        standard errors, i.e. se*dfx(b) is displayed instead of se. Use @ as a
        placeholder for the function's argument in fx and dfx. For example, type

            estout ..., transform(exp(@) exp(@))

        to report exponentiated results (this is equivalent to specifying the eform
        option).

        Alternatively, list may be specified as

            coefs fx dfx [ ... [coefs] fx dfx ]

        where coefs identifies the coefficients to be transformed. Syntax for coefs
        is as explained above in the description of the drop() option (however,
        include coefs in quotes if it contains multiple elements). Say, a model has
        two equations, price and select, and you want to exponentiate the price
        equation but not the select equation. You could then type

            estout ..., transform(price: exp(@) exp(@))

        Note that omitting coef in the last transformation specification causes the
        last transformation to be applied to all remaining coefficients.

        Specify the pattern() suboption if the transformations are to be applied only
        for certain models. For instance, pattern(1 0 1) would apply the
        transformation to Models 1 and 3, but not Model 2.

    margin[(u|c|p)] indicates that the marginal effects or elasticities be reported
        instead of the raw coefficients. This option has an effect only if mfx has
        been applied to a model before its results were stored (see help mfx) or if a
        dprobit (see help probit), truncreg,marginal (help truncreg), or dtobit (Cong
        2000) model is estimated. One of the parameters u, c, or p, corresponding to
        the unconditional, conditional, and probability marginal effects,
        respectively, is required for dtobit. Note that the standard errors,
        confidence intervals, t-statistics, and p-values are transformed as well.

        Using the margin option with multiple-equation models can be tricky.  The
        marginal effects of variables that are used in several equations are printed
        repeatedly for each equation because the equations per se are meaningless for
        mfx. To display the effects for certain equations only, specify the meqs()
        option. Alternatively, use the keep() and drop() options to eliminate
        redundant rows. The equations() option might also be of help here.

        As of Stata 11, the use of mfx is no longer suggested, since mfx has been
        superseded by margins. Results from margins can directly be tabulated by
        estout as long as the post option is specified with margins. Alternatively,
        you may add results from margins to an existing model using estadd margins or
        estpost margins. See 
        http://repec.sowi.unibe.ch/stata/estout/coefficients.html#002 for an example
        on tabulating results from margins.

    discrete(string) may be used to override the default symbol and explanatory text
        used to identify dummy variables when applying the margin option. The first
        token in string is used as the symbol. The default is:

            discrete(" (d)" for discrete change of dummy variable from 0 to 1)

        To display explanatory text, specify either the legend option or use the
        @discrete variable (see the Remarks on using @-variables).

        Use nodiscrete to disable the identification of dummy variables as such. The
        default is to indicate the dummy variables unless they have been interpreted
        as continuous variables in all of the models for which results are reported
        (for dprobit and dtobit, however, dummy variables will always be listed as
        discrete variables unless nodiscrete is specified).

    meqs(eq_list) specifies that marginal effects requested by the margin option be
        printed only for the equations in eq_list. Specifying this option does not
        affect how the marginal effects are calculated.  An eq_list comprises one or
        more equation names (without colons) separated by white space. If you use the
        equations() option to match equations, be sure to refer to the matched
        equation names and not to the original equation names in the models.

    dropped[(string)] causes null coefficients (coefficients for which e(b) and e(V)
        is zero) to be indicated as dropped. string specifies the text to be printed
        in place of the estimates. The default text is "(dropped)".

    level(#) assigns the confidence level, in percent, for the confidence intervals
        of the coefficients (see help level).


        +--------------------+
    ----+ Summary statistics +-------------------------------------------------------

    stats(scalarlist[, stats_subopts]) specifies one or more scalar statistics -
        separated by white space - to be displayed at the bottom of the table. The
        scalarlist may contain numeric e()-scalars such as, e.g., N, r2, or chi2, but
        also string e()-macros such as cmd or depvar. In addition, the following
        statistics are available:

            aic     Akaike's information criterion
            bic     Schwarz's information criterion
            rank    rank of e(V), i.e. the number of free parameters in model
            p       the p-value of the model (overall model significance)

        See [R] estimates table for details on the aic and bic statistics.  The rules
        for the determination of p are as follows (note that although the procedure
        outlined below is appropriate for most models, there might be some models for
        which it is not):

            1) p-value provided: If the e(p) scalar is provided by the estimation
               command, it will be interpreted as indicating the p-value of the
               model.

            2) F test: If e(p) is not provided, estout checks for the presence of the
               e(df_m), e(df_r), and e(F) scalars and, if they are present, the
               p-value of the model will be calculated as Ftail(df_m,df_r,F). This
               p-value corresponds to the standard overall F test of linear
               regression.

            3) chi2 test: Otherwise, if neither e(p) nor e(F) is provided, estout
               checks for the presence of e(df_m) and e(chi2) and, if they are
               present, calculates the p-value as chi2tail(df_m,chi2). This p-value
               corresponds to the Likelihood-Ratio or Wald chi2 test.

            4) If neither e(p), e(F), nor e(chi2) is available, no p-value will be
               reported.

        Type ereturn list after estimating a model to see a list of the returned
        e()-scalars and macros (see help ereturn). Use the estadd command to add
        extra statistics and other information to the e()-returns.

        The following stats_subopts are available. Use:

            fmt(fmt [fmt ...]) to set the display formats for the scalars statistics
                in scalarlist.  fmt may be any of Stata's numerical display formats,
                e.g., %9.0g or %8.2f, an integer # such as 1 or 3 to use a fixed
                format with # decimal places, or a# such as a1 or a3 to use estout's
                adaptive display format (see Numerical formats in the {help
                estout##rem:Remarks} section for details). For example, fmt(3 0)
                would be suitable for stats(r2_a N). Note that the last specified
                format is used for the remaining scalars if the list of scalars is
                longer than the list of formats. Thus, only one format needs to be
                specified if all scalars are to be displayed in the same format. If
                no format is specified, the default format is the display format of
                the coefficients.

            labels(strlist[, label_subopts]) to specify labels for rows containing
                the scalar statistics. If specified, the labels are used instead of
                the scalar names. For example:

                    . estout ..., stats(r2_a N, labels("Adj. R-Square" "Number of
                    Cases"))

                Note that names like r2_a produce an error in LaTeX because the
                underscore character has a special meaning in LaTeX (to print the
                underscore in LaTeX, type \_). Use the label() suboption to rename
                such statistics, e.g. stats(r2_a, labels(r2\_a)). An alternative
                approach is to use estout's substitute() option (see the Layout
                options).

            star[(scalarlist)] to specify that the overall significance of the model
                be denoted by stars. The stars are attached to the scalar statistics
                specified in scalarlist. If scalarlist is omitted, the stars are
                attached to the first reported scalar statistic. The printing of the
                stars is suppressed in empty results cells (i.e. if the scalar
                statistic in question is missing for a certain model). The
                determination of the model significance is based on the p-value of
                the model (see above).

                Hint: It is possible to attach the stars to different scalar
                statistics within the same table. For example, specify
                stats(,star(r2_a r2_p)) when tabulating OLS estimates and, say,
                probit estimates. For the OLS models, the F test will be carried out
                and the significance stars will be attached to the r2_a; for the
                probit models, the chi2 test will be used and the stars will appear
                next to the r2_p.

            layout(array) to rearrange the summary statistics. The default is to
                print the statistics in separate rows beneath one another (in each
                model's first column). The syntax for array is

                    <row> [ <row> ... ]

                where row is

                    <cell> [ <cell> ... ]

                and @ is used as a placeholder for the statistics, one after another.
                Rows and cells that contain blanks have to be embraced in quotes. For
                example,

                     ... stats(chi2 df_m N, layout("@ @" @))

                prints for each model in row 1/column 1 the chi-squared, in
                row1/column 2 the degrees of freedom, and in row 2/column 1 the
                number of observations. Cells may contain multiple statistics and
                text other than the placeholder symbol is printed as is (provided the
                cells' statistics are part of the model). For example,

                     ... stats(chi2 df_m N, layout(`""@ (@)""' @))

                prints a cell containing "chi2 (df_m)" in the first row and the
                number of observations in the second row. Note that the number of
                columns in the table only depends on the cells() option (see above)
                and not on the layout() suboption. If, for example, the table has two
                columns per model and you specify three columns of summary
                statistics, the summary statistics in the third column are not
                printed.

            pchar(symbol) to specify the placeholder symbol used in layout(). The
                default placeholder is @.


        +--------------------+
    ----+ Significance stars +-------------------------------------------------------

    starlevels(levelslist) overrides the default thresholds and symbols for
        "significance stars". For instance, starlevels(+ 0.10 * 0.05) sets the
        following thresholds: + for p<.10 and * for p<.05. Note that the thresholds
        must lie in the (0,1] interval and must be specified in descending order. To,
        for example, denote insignificant results, type starlevels(* 1 "" 0.05).

    stardrop(droplist [, relax]) identifies the coefficients for which the
        significance stars be suppressed. droplist is specified as in drop() (see
        above).

    starkeep(keeplist [, relax]) selects the coefficients for which the significance
        stars, if requested, be printed. keeplist is specified analogous to droplist
        in drop() (see above).

    stardetach specifies that a delimiter be placed between the statistics and the
        significance stars (i.e. that the stars are to be displayed in their own
        column).


        +--------+
    ----+ Layout +-------------------------------------------------------------------

    varwidth(#) specifies the number of characters used to display the names (labels)
        of regressors and statistics (i.e. varwidth specifies the width of the
        table's left stub). Long names (labels) are abbreviated (depending on the
        abbrev option) and short or empty cells are padded out with blanks to fit the
        width specified by the user.  varwidth set to 0 means that the names are not
        abbreviated and no white space is added. Specifying low values may cause
        misalignment.

    modelwidth(# [# ...]) designates the number of characters used to display the
        results columns. If a non-zero modelwidth is specified, model names are
        abbreviated if necessary (depending on the abbrev option) and short or empty
        results cells are padded out with blanks. In contrast, modelwidth does not
        shorten or truncate the display of the results themselves (coefficients,
        t-statistics, summary statistics, etc.) although it may add blanks if needed.
        modelwidth set to 0 means that the model names are not abbreviated and no
        white space is added. Specifying low values may cause misalignment. Specify a
        list of numbers in modelwidth() to assign individual widths to the different
        results columns (the list is recycled if there are more columns than
        numbers).

        The purpose of modelwidth is to be able to construct a fixed-format table and
        thus make the raw table more readable. Be aware, however, that the added
        blanks may cause problems with the conversion to a table in word processors
        or spreadsheets.

    unstack specifies that the individual equations from multiple-equation models
        (e.g. mlogit, reg3, heckman) be placed in separate columns. The default is to
        place the equations below one another in a single column. Summary statistics
        will be reported for each equation if unstack is specified and the estimation
        command is either reg3, sureg, or mvreg (see help reg3, help sureg, help 
        mvreg).

    begin(string) specifies a string to be printed at the beginning of every table
        row. It is possible to use special functions such as _tab or _skip in
        begin(). For more information on using such functions, see the description of
        the functions in help file.

    delimiter(string) designates the delimiter used between the table columns. See
        the begin option above for further details.

    end(string) specifies a string to be printed at the end of every table row. See
        the begin option above for further details.

    incelldelimiter(string) specifies text to be printed between parameter statistics
        that have been combined in a single cell by the & operator. See the cells()
        option for details. The default string is a single blank.

    dmarker(string) specifies the form of the decimal marker. The standard decimal
        symbol (a period or a comma, depending on the input provided to set dp; see
        help format) is replaced by string.

    msign(string) determines the form of the minus sign. The standard minus sign (-)
        is replaced by string.

    lz specifies that the leading zero of fixed format numbers in the interval (-1,1)
        be printed. This is the default. Use nolz to advise estout to omit the
        leading zeros (that is, to print numbers like 0.021 or -0.33 as .021 and
        -.33).

    extracols(numlist) inserts empty table columns at the indicated positions. For
        example, extracols(1) adds an extra column between the left stub of the table
        and the first column.

    substitute(subst_list) specifies that the substitutions specified in subst_list
        be applied to the estimates table after it has been created. Specify
        subst_list as a list of substitution pairs, that is:

            from to [from to ...]

        For example, specify substitute(_ \_) to replace the underscore character (as
        in _cons or F_p) with it's LaTeX equivalent \_.


        +----------+
    ----+ Labeling +-----------------------------------------------------------------

    label specifies that variable labels be displayed instead of variable names in
        the left stub of the table.

    abbrev specifies that long names and labels be abbreviated if a modelwidth()
        and/or a varwidth() is specified.

    wrap causes long variable labels to be wrapped if space permits and a varwidth()
        is specified. The wrap option is only useful if several parameter statistics
        are printed beneath one another and, therefore, white space is available
        beneath the labels.

    interaction(string) specifies the string to be used as delimiter for interaction
        terms (only relevant in Stata 11 or newer). The default is interaction(" #
        "). For style(tex) the default is interaction(" $\times$ ").

    title(string) may be used to specify a title for the table.  The string is
        printed at the top of the table unless prehead(), posthead(), prefoot(), or
        postfoot() is specified. In the latter case, the variable @title can be used
        to insert the title.

    note(string) may be used to specify a note for the table.  The string is printed
        at the bottom, of the table unless prehead(), posthead(), prefoot(), or
        postfoot() is specified. In the latter case, the variable @note can be used
        to insert the note.

    legend adds a legend explaining the significance symbols and thresholds.

    prehead(strlist), posthead(strlist), prefoot(strlist), and postfoot(strlist) may
        be used to define lists of text lines to appear before and after the table
        heading or the table footer. For example, the specification

            . estout ..., prehead("\S_DATE \S_TIME" "")

        would add a line containing the current date and time followed by an empty
        line before the table. Various substitution functions can be used as part of
        the text lines specified in strlist (see the Remarks on using @-variables).
        For example, @hline plots a horizontal "line" (series of dashes, by default;
        see the hlinechar() option) or @M inserts the number of models in the table.
        @M could be used in a LaTeX table heading as follows:

            . estout ..., prehead(\begin{tabular}{l*{@M}{r}})

    hlinechar(string) specifies the character(s) to be used in @hline. The default is
        hlinechar(-), resulting in a dashed line. To produce a solid line, specify
        hlinechar(`=char(151)') (Windows only; other systems may use other codes).

    varlabels(matchlist[, suboptions]) may be used to relabel the regressors from the
        models, where matchlist is

            name label [name label ...]

        A name is a parameter name (e.g. price) or a full name (e.g. mean:price)
        (abbreviation and wildcards not allowed). For example, specify
        varlabels(_cons Constant) to replace each occurrence of _cons with Constant.
        (Note that, in LaTeX, the underscore character produces an error unless it is
        specified as \_. Thus, names such as _cons should always be changed if the
        estimates table is to be used with LaTeX. The substitute() may also be
        helpful; see the Layout options.) The suboptions are:

            blist(matchlist) to assign specific prefixes to certain rows in the table
                body. Specify the matchlist as pairs of regressors and prefixes, that
                is:

                    name prefix [name prefix ...]

                A name is a parameter name (e.g. price), an equation name followed by
                a colon (e.g. mean:), or a full name (e.g. mean:price) (abbreviation
                and wildcards not allowed). Note that equation names cannot be used
                if the unstack option is specified.

            elist(matchlist) to assign specific suffixes to certain rows in the table
                body (see the analogous blist() option above). This option may, for
                example, be useful for separating thematic blocks of variables by
                adding vertical space at the end of each block. A LaTeX example:

                    . estout ..., varlabels(,elist(price \addlinespace mpg
                    \addlinespace))

                (the macro \addlinespace is provided by the booktabs package in
                LaTeX)

            label_subopts, which are explained in their own section.

    labcol2(strlist[, suboptions]) adds a second column containing additional labels
        for the coefficients and summary statistics. Labels containing spaces should
        be embraced in double quotes ("label 1" "label 2" etc.). An example would be
        to add a column indicating the hypothesized directions of effects, e.g.,

        . estout ..., labcol2(+ - +/- + 0)

        The suboptions are:

            title(strlist) to add text in the table header above the column. Use
                double quotes to break the title into several rows (given there are
                multiple header rows), i.e. specify strlist as "line 1" "line 2" etc.

            width(#) to set the width, in number of characters, of the column. The
                default is the value of modelwidth().

    refcat(matchlist[, suboptions]) may be used to insert a row containing
        information on the reference category of a categorical variable in the model.
        matchlist is

            name refcat [name refcat ...]

        A name is a parameter name (e.g. _Irep78_2) (abbreviation and wildcards not
        allowed). For example, assume that you include the categorical variable rep78
        ("Repair Record 1978" from the auto dataset) in some of your models using xi
        (see help xi). Since rep78 has five levels, 1 through 5, xi will create 4
        dummy variables, _Irep78_2 through _Irep78_5. You can now type

            . estout ..., refcat(_Irep78_2 _Irep78_1)

        to add a table row containing "_Irep78_1" in the left stub and "ref." in each
        column in which the _Irep78_2 dummy appears. The suboptions are:

            label(string) to specify the label that is printed in the table columns.
                The default is label(ref.). Type nolabel to suppress the default
                label.

            below to position the reference category row below the specified
                coefficient's row. The default is above. For example, if the 5th
                category of rep78 is used as reference category, i.e. if _Irep78_1
                through _Irep78_4 are included in the models, you might want to type
                refcat(_Irep78_4 _Irep78_5, below).

    mlabels(strlist[, suboptions]) determines the model captions printed in the table
        heading. The default is to use the names of the stored estimation sets (or
        their titles, if the label option is specified and titles are available). The
        suboptions for use with mlabels are:

            depvars to specify that the name (or label) of the (first) dependent
                variable of the model be used as model label.

            titles to specify that, if available, the title of the stored estimation
                set be used as the model label. Note that the label option implies
                titles (unless notitles is specified). depvars takes precedence over
                titles.

            numbers to cause the model labels to be numbered consecutively.

            label_subopts, which are explained in their own section.

    collabels(strlist[, label_subopts]) specifies labels for the columns within
        models or equations. The default is to compose a label from the names or
        labels of the statistics printed in the cells of that column. The
        label_subopts are explained in their own section below.

    eqlabels(strlist[, suboptions]) labels the equations. The default is to use the
        equation names as stored by the estimation command, or to use the variable
        labels if the equation names correspond to individual variables and the label
        option is specified. The suboptions for use with eqlabels are:

            merge to merge equation labels and parameter labels instead of printing
                equation labels in separate rows. Equation and parameter labels will
                be separated by ":" unless another delimiter is specified via the
                suffix() suboption (see label_subopts).  merge has no effect if
                unstack is specified.

            label_subopts, which are explained in their own section. Note that
                eqlabels(none) causes _cons to be replaced with the equation name or
                label, if _cons is the only parameter in an equation. This is useful,
                e.g., for tabulating ologit or oprobit results in Stata 9. Specify
                eqlabels("", none) to not replace _cons.

    mgroups(strlist[, suboptions]) may be used to labels groups of (consecutive)
        models at the top of the table heading. The labels are placed in the first
        physical column of the output for the group of models to which they apply.
        The suboptions for use with mgroups are:

            pattern(pattern) to establish how the models are to be grouped.  pattern
                should be a list of zeros and ones, with ones indicating the start of
                a new group of models. For example,

                    . estout ..., mgroups("Group 1" "Group 2", pattern(1 0 0 1 0))

                would group Models 1, 2, and 3 together and then groups Models 4 and
                5 together as well. Note that the first group will always start with
                the first model regardless of whether the first token of pattern is a
                one or a zero.

            label_subopts, which are explained in their own section. In particular,
                the span suboption might be of interest here.

    numbers[(l r)] adds a row to the table header displaying consecutive model
        numbers. The default is to enclose the numbers in parentheses, i.e. (1), (2),
        etc.  Alternatively, specify l and r to change the tokens on the left and
        right of each number. For example, numbers("" ")") would result in 1), 2),
        etc.


        +--------+
    ----+ Output +-------------------------------------------------------------------

    replace permits estout to overwrite an existing file.

    append specifies that the output be appended to an existing file. It may be used
        even if the file does not yet exist.

    type specifies that the assembled estimates table be printed in the results
        window and the log file. This is the default unless using is specified. Use
        notype to suppress the display of the table.

    showtabs requests that tabs be displayed as <T>s in both the results window and
        the log file instead of in expanded form. This option does not affect how
        tabs are written to the text file specified by using.

    topfile(filename) and bottomfile(filename) may be used to insert text before and
        after the table, where the text is imported from a file on disk. Note that
        substitute() does not apply to text inserted by topfile() or bottomfile().


        +----------+
    ----+ Defaults +-----------------------------------------------------------------

    style(style) specifies a "style" for the output table. defaults(style) is a
        synonym for style(style). A "style" is a named combination of options that is
        saved in an auxiliary file called estout_style.def.  In addition, there are
        five internal styles called smcl (default for screen display), tab (export
        default), fixed, tex, and html. The smcl style is suitable for displaying the
        table in Stata's results window and is the default unless using is specified.
        It includes SMCL formatting tags and horizontal lines to structure the table.
        The particulars of the other styles are:

            settings                 styles
                         tab     fixed   tex     html
            -----------------------------------------------
            begin                                <tr><td>
            delimiter    _tab    " "     &       </td><td>
            end                          \\      </td></tr>
            varwidth     0       12/20*  12/20*  12/20*
            modelwidth   0       12      12      12
            abbrev       off     on      off     off
                                         (* if label is on)

        tab is the default export style (i.e. if using is specified).

        Note that explicitly specified options take precedence over settings provided
        by a style. For example, if you type

            . estout, delimiter("") style(tab)

        then the column delimiter will be set to empty string since the delimiter()
        option overwrites the default from the tab style. Similarly, specifying
        noabbrev will turn abbreviation off if using the fixed style.

        See Defaults files in the Remarks section to make available your own style.


        +---------------+
    ----+ label_subopts +------------------------------------------------------------

    The following suboptions may be used within the mgroups(), mlabels(),
    collabels(), eqlabels(), varlabels(), and stats(, labels()) options:

    none suppresses the printing of the labels or drops the part of the table heading
        to which it applies. Note that instead of typing option(, none) you may
        simply specify option(none).

    prefix(string) specifies a common prefix to be added to each label.

    suffix(string) specifies a common suffix to be added to each label.

    begin(strlist) specifies a prefix to be printed at the beginning of the part of
        the table to which it applies. If begin is specified in varlabels() or
        stats(,labels()), the prefix will be repeated for each regressor or summary
        statistic.

    first specifies that the first occurrence of the begin()-prefix in varlabels() or
        stats(,labels()) be printed. This is the default. Use nofirst to suppress the
        first occurrence of the prefix. In varlabels(), nofirst applies
        equation-wise, i.e., the first begin()-prefix in each equation is suppressed
        (unless unstack is specified).

    end(strlist) specifies a suffix to be printed at the end of the part of the table
        to which it applies. If end is specified in varlabels() or stats(,labels()),
        the suffix will be repeated for each regressor or summary statistic.

    last specifies that the last occurrence of the end()-suffix in varlabels() or
        stats(,labels()) be printed. This is the default. Use nolast to suppress the
        last occurrence of the suffix. In varlabels(), nolast applies equation-wise,
        i.e., the last end()-suffix in each equation is suppressed (unless unstack is
        specified).

    replace causes the label suboption begin()-prefix and end()-suffix to be used
        instead of the global begin() and end() strings. The default is to print
        both. replace also applies to blist() and elist() if specified in
        varlabels().

    span causes labels to span columns, i.e. extends the labels across several
        columns, if appropriate. This suboption is relevant only for the mgroups(),
        mlabels(), eqlabels(), and collabels() options. The @span string returns the
        number of spanned columns if it is included in the label, prefix, or suffix.
        A LaTeX example:

        . estout ..., mlabels(, span prefix(\multicolumn{@span}{c}{) suffix(}))

    erepeat(string) specifies a string that is repeated for each group of spanned
        columns at the very end of the row if the span suboption is specified. This
        suboption is relevant only for the mgroups(), mlabels(), eqlabels(), and
        collabels() options. If the @span string is included in string it will be
        replaced by the range of columns spanned. A LaTeX example:

        . estout ..., mlabels(, span erepeat(\cline{@span}))

    lhs(string) inserts string into the otherwise empty cell in the left stub of the
        row of the table heading to which it applies. This suboption is relevant only
        for the mgroups(), mlabels(), eqlabels(), and collabels() options.


        +----------------+
    ----+ matrix_subopts +-----------------------------------------------------------

    The following suboptions may be applied within the matrix(), e(), or r() argument
    used to tabulate a matrix:

    fmt(fmtlist) sets the display formats for the matrix.  fmtlist contains a list of
        format specifications, one for each column of the matrix. fmtlist is recycled
        if it supplies less specifications than there are columns in the matrix. A
        format specification may be a single fmt such as, e.g., %9.0g or a3 (see
        Numerical formats in the Remarks section for details) to be applied to all
        cells in the column. Alternatively, a format specification may be a list of
        fmts, enclosed in double quotes, to be used for the cells in the column one
        by one. The last format in the list is used for the remaining cells if the
        number of cells in the column is greater than the number of formats in the
        list. Also see the examples below.

    transpose causes the matrix to be transposed for tabulation.


Examples

    Contents
        Introduction
        Publication style table
        t-statistics for selected variables only
        Summary statistics only
        Table of descriptives
        Unstack multiple equations
        Tabulating a matrix

    Please first read the Introduction. The other examples are more advanced and
    intended for users already familiar with the basic features of estout. Additional
    examples can be found in Jann (2005) and at 
    http://repec.sowi.unibe.ch/stata/estout/.


        +--------------+
    ----+ Introduction +-------------------------------------------------------------

    The full syntax of estout is rather complex and is to be found above. However,
    consider the following basic syntax, which includes only the most important
    options:

        estout [ namelist ] [ using filename ] [ , cells(array) stats(scalarlist)
               style(style) more_options ]

    where namelist is a list of the names of stored estimation sets (the name list
    can be entered as * to refer to all stored estimates). The cells() and stats()
    options determine the primary contents of the table. The style() option
    determines the basic formatting of the table.

    Basic usage

    The general procedure for using estout is to first store several models using the
    estimates store or the eststo command and then apply estout to display or save a
    table of the estimates. By default, estout displays a plain table of the
    coefficients of the models and uses SMCL tags and horizontal lines to structure
    the table:

        . sysuse auto
        (1978 Automobile Data)

        . replace price = price / 1000
        price was int now float
        (74 real changes made)

        . replace weight = weight / 1000
        weight was int now float
        (74 real changes made)

        . quietly regress price weight mpg
        
        . estimates store m1, title(Model 1)
        
        . generate forXmpg = foreign * mpg
        
        . quietly regress price weight mpg forXmpg foreign
        
        . estimates store m2, title(Model 2)
        
        . estout m1 m2
        
        --------------------------------------
                               m1           m2
                                b            b
        --------------------------------------
        weight           1.746559     4.613589
        mpg             -.0495122     .2631875
        forXmpg                      -.3072165
        foreign                       11.24033
        _cons            1.946068    -14.44958
        --------------------------------------

    Alternatively, if using is specified, estout writes a raw tab-delimited table
    (without SMCL tags and without lines) to the indicated file (* is used in the
    following example to indicate that all stored models be tabulated):

        . estout * using example.txt
        (output written to example.txt)

        . type example.txt
                m1      m2
                b       b
        weight  1.746559        4.613589
        mpg     -.0495122       .2631875
        forXmpg         -.3072165
        foreign         11.24033
        _cons   1.946068        -14.44958
        
    The table looks messy in the Stata results window or the Stata log because the
    columns are tab-separated (note that tab characters are not preserved in the
    results window or the log). However, the table would look tidy if "example.txt"
    were opened, for example, in a spreadsheet program.

    Choosing a style

    estout has a style() option to set the basic format of the table. The default
    style for screen display is the smcl style.  The default export style (i.e. if
    using is specified) is the tab style. (See the examples above.) Other predefined
    styles are fixed, tex, and html, but it is also possible to define one's own
    styles (see Defaults files in the Remarks section). The tex style, for example,
    modifies the output table for use with LaTeX's tabular environment:

        . estout *, style(tex) varlabels(_cons \_cons)
        
                    &          m1&          m2\\
                    &           b&           b\\
        weight      &    1.746559&    4.613589\\
        mpg         &   -.0495122&    .2631875\\
        forXmpg     &            &   -.3072165\\
        foreign     &            &    11.24033\\
        \_cons      &    1.946068&   -14.44958\\
        
    Note that _cons has been replaced by its LaTeX equivalent in the example above
    using the varlabels() option (the underscore character produces an error in LaTeX
    unless it is preceded by a backslash). For more information on the varlabels()
    option, see estout's Labeling options.

    The cells option

    Use the cells() option to specify the parameter statistics to be tabulated and
    how they are to be arranged. The parameter statistics available are b (point
    estimates; the default), se (standard errors), t (t-/z-statistics), p (p-values),
    ci (confidence intervals; to display the lower and upper bounds in separate cells
    use ci_l and ci_u), as well as any additional parameter statistics included in
    the e()-returns for the models (see estout's Parameter Statistics options). For
    example, cells(b se) results in the reporting of point estimates and standard
    errors:

        . estout *, cells(b se)
        
        --------------------------------------
                               m1           m2
                             b/se         b/se
        --------------------------------------
        weight           1.746559     4.613589
                         .6413538     .7254961
        mpg             -.0495122     .2631875
                          .086156     .1107961
        forXmpg                      -.3072165
                                      .1085307
        foreign                       11.24033
                                      2.751681
        _cons            1.946068    -14.44958
                          3.59705      4.42572
        --------------------------------------

    Multiple statistics are placed in separate rows beneath one another by default as
    in the example above. However, elements that are listed in quotes or in
    parentheses are placed beside one another. For example, specifying
    cells("b se t p") or, equivalently, cells((b se t p)) produces the following
    table:

        . estout m2, cells("b se t p")
        
        ----------------------------------------------------------------
                               m2
                                b           se            t            p
        ----------------------------------------------------------------
        weight           4.613589     .7254961     6.359219     1.89e-08
        mpg              .2631875     .1107961     2.375421     .0203122
        forXmpg         -.3072165     .1085307    -2.830687     .0060799
        foreign          11.24033     2.751681     4.084896     .0001171
        _cons           -14.44958      4.42572     -3.26491     .0017061
        ----------------------------------------------------------------

    The two approaches can be combined. For example, cells("b p" se) would produce a
    table with point estimates and standard errors beneath one another in the first
    column and p-values in the top row of the second column for each model.

    Note that for each statistic named in the cells() option a set of suboptions may
    be specified in parentheses. For example, in social sciences it is common to
    report standard errors or t-statistics in parentheses beneath the coefficients
    and to indicate the significance of individual coefficients with stars.
    Furthermore, the results are rounded. Just such a table can be created using the
    following procedure:

        . estout *, cells(b(star fmt(3)) t(par fmt(2)))
        
        --------------------------------------------
                               m1              m2
                              b/t             b/t
        --------------------------------------------
        weight              1.747**         4.614***
                           (2.72)          (6.36)   
        mpg                -0.050           0.263*  
                          (-0.57)          (2.38)   
        forXmpg                            -0.307** 
                                          (-2.83)   
        foreign                            11.240***
                                           (4.08)   
        _cons               1.946         -14.450** 
                           (0.54)         (-3.26)   
        --------------------------------------------

    The estout default is to display * for p<.05, ** for p<.01, and *** for p<.001.
    However, note that the significance thresholds and symbols are fully customizable
    (see estout's Significance stars options).

    The stats option

    Finally, use the stats() option to specify scalar statistics to be displayed for
    each model in the table footer. The available scalar statistics are aic (Akaike's
    information criterion), bic (Schwarz's information criterion), rank (the rank of
    e(V), i.e. the number of free parameters in model), p (the p-value of the model),
    as well as any numeric or string scalars contained in the e()-returns for the
    models (see estout's Summary statistics options). For example, specify stats(r2
    bic N) to add the R-squared, BIC, and the number of cases:

        . estout *, stats(r2 bic N)
        
        --------------------------------------
                               m1           m2
                                b            b
        --------------------------------------
        weight           1.746559     4.613589
        mpg             -.0495122     .2631875
        forXmpg                      -.3072165
        foreign                       11.24033
        _cons            1.946068    -14.44958
        --------------------------------------
        r2               .2933891     .5516277
        bic              356.2918     331.2406
        N                      74           74
        --------------------------------------

        +-------------------------+
    ----+ Publication style table +--------------------------------------------------

        . label variable foreign "Foreign car type"
        
        . label variable forXmpg "Foreign*Mileage"
        
        . estout *, cells(b(star fmt(%9.3f)) se(par))                ///
        >     stats(r2_a N, fmt(%9.3f %9.0g) labels(R-squared))      ///
        >     legend label collabels(none) varlabels(_cons Constant)
        
        ----------------------------------------------------
                                  Model 1         Model 2
        ----------------------------------------------------
        Weight (lbs.)               1.747**         4.614***
                                  (0.641)         (0.725)   
        Mileage (mpg)              -0.050           0.263*  
                                  (0.086)         (0.111)   
        Foreign*Mileage                            -0.307** 
                                                  (0.109)   
        Foreign car type                           11.240***
                                                  (2.752)   
        Constant                    1.946         -14.450** 
                                  (3.597)         (4.426)   
        ----------------------------------------------------
        R-squared                   0.273           0.526   
        N                              74              74   
        ----------------------------------------------------
        * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001

        +------------------------------------------+
    ----+ t-statistics for selected variables only +---------------------------------

        . estout *, cells(b(star) t(par keep(mpg)))
        
        --------------------------------------------
                               m1              m2
                              b/t             b/t
        --------------------------------------------
        weight           1.746559**      4.613589***
        mpg             -.0495122        .2631875*  
                      (-.5746806)      (2.375421)   
        forXmpg                         -.3072165** 
        foreign                          11.24033***
        _cons            1.946068       -14.44958** 
        --------------------------------------------

        +-------------------------+
    ----+ Summary statistics only +--------------------------------------------------

        . estout *, cells(none) stats(r2_a bic N, star)
        
        --------------------------------------------
                               m1              m2
        --------------------------------------------
        r2_a             .2734846***     .5256351***
        bic              356.2918        331.2406   
        N                      74              74   
        --------------------------------------------

        +-----------------------+
    ----+ Table of descriptives +----------------------------------------------------

        . quietly generate x = uniform()
        
        . quietly regress x price weight mpg foreign
        
        . estadd mean

        added matrix:
                       e(mean) :  1 x 5
        
        . estadd sd, nobinary

        added matrix:
                         e(sd) :  1 x 5
        
        . estout, cells("mean sd") stats(N) mlabels(,none) drop(_cons)
        
        --------------------------------------
                             mean           sd
        --------------------------------------
        price            6.165257     2.949496
        weight           3.019459     .7771936
        mpg               21.2973     5.785503
        foreign          .2972973             
        --------------------------------------
        N                      74             
        --------------------------------------

        +----------------------------+
    ----+ Unstack multiple equations +-----------------------------------------------

        . quietly sureg (price foreign weight length) ///
        >               (mpg displ = foreign weight)
        
        . estout, cells(b t(par)) stats(r2 chi2 p) unstack
        
        ---------------------------------------------------
                            price          mpg displacement
                              b/t          b/t          b/t
        ---------------------------------------------------
        foreign           3.57526    -1.650029     -25.6127
                       (5.749891)  (-1.565555)  (-2.047999)
        weight           5.691462    -6.587886     96.75485
                       (6.182983)  (-10.55641)   (13.06594)
        length          -.0882711                          
                      (-2.809689)                          
        _cons            4.506212      41.6797    -87.23547
                       (1.255897)   (19.64914)   (-3.46585)
        ---------------------------------------------------
        r2                .548808     .6627029     .8115213
        chi2             89.73586     145.3912     318.6174
        p                2.50e-19     2.68e-32     6.50e-70
        ---------------------------------------------------

        +---------------------+
    ----+ Tabulating a matrix +------------------------------------------------------

    Use estout matrix(matname) to tabulate Stata matrix matname. Example:

        . set seed 123
        
        . matrix A = matuniform(3,2)
        
        . matrix list A

        A[3,2]
                c1         c2
        r1  .91204397   .0075452
        r2  .28085881  .46027868
        r3  .56010592  .67319061
        
        . estout matrix(A)
        
        --------------------------------------
                                A
                               c1           c2
        --------------------------------------
        r1                .912044     .0075452
        r2               .2808588     .4602787
        r3               .5601059     .6731906
        --------------------------------------

    Numeric formats for the columns can be set using the fmt() suboption:

        . estout matrix(A, fmt(2 3))
        
        --------------------------------------
                                A
                               c1           c2
        --------------------------------------
        r1                   0.91        0.008
        r2                   0.28        0.460
        r3                   0.56        0.673
        --------------------------------------

    A list of formats can be specified for each column:

        . estout matrix(A, fmt("2 3 4" "4 3 2"))
        
        --------------------------------------
                                A
                               c1           c2
        --------------------------------------
        r1                   0.91       0.0075
        r2                  0.281        0.460
        r3                 0.5601         0.67
        --------------------------------------

Remarks

    Contents

        Numerical formats
        Special characters
        Using @-variables
        Defaults files

        +-------------------+
    ----+ Numerical formats +--------------------------------------------------------

    Numerical display formats may be specified in estout as follows:

     1. Official Stata's display formats: You may specify formats, such as %9.0g or
        %8.2f. See help format for a list of available formats. %g or g may be used
        as a synonym for %9.0g.

     2. Fixed format: You may specify an integer value such as 0, 1, 2, etc. to
        request a display format with a fixed number of decimal places. For example,
        cells(t(fmt(3))) would display t-statistics with three decimal places.

     3. Automatic format: You may specify a1, a2, ..., or a9 to cause esttab to
        choose a reasonable display format for each number depending on the number's
        value. a may be used as a synonym for a3. The # in a# determines the minimum
        precision according to the following rules:

          o Absolute numbers smaller than 1 are displayed with # significant decimal
            places (i.e. with # decimal places ignoring any leading zeros after the
            decimal point). For example, 0.00123456 is displayed as 0.00123 if the
            format is a3.

          o Absolute numbers greater than 1 are displayed with as many digits
            required to retain at least one decimal place and are displayed with a
            minimum of (# + 1) digits. For example, if the format is a3, 1.23456 is
            displayed as 1.235, 12.3456 is displayed as 12.35, and 1234.56 is
            displayed as 1234.6.

          o In any case, integers are displayed with zero decimal places, and very
            large or very small absolute numbers are displayed in exponential format.


        +--------------------+
    ----+ Special characters +-------------------------------------------------------

    The \ and $ characters and quotation marks have special meanings in Stata. You
    should therefore consider the following instructions if you, for example, intend
    to specify akward delimiters or specify special characters in labels:

      - Strings containing unmatched quotes should be enclosed in compound double
        quotes (thus, delimiter(`"""') results in columns delimited by ", while
        delimiter(") produces an error).

      - The backslash character is used to delay macro expansion in Stata. Specifying
        \\ in Stata 8 just results in the printing of \. To get a double backslash in
        Stata 8 (the \newline command in TeX), type \\\.

      - The dollar sign is used for global macro expansion in Stata. Thus, $x would
        result in the display of the contents of global macro x (or nothing, if the
        macro is empty). Therefore, use \$ to produce $ in the output. For math mode
        in LaTeX I recommend using \(...\) instead of $...$.

    Stata's char() function may also be used to specify odd characters (see help 
    strfun). In particular, "`=char(9)'" results in a tab character and "`=char(13)'"
    results in a carriage return. For example, delimiter(" `=char(9)' ") specifies
    that a tab character with a leading and a trailing blank be used as delimiter.

    Tip: It is sometimes very useful to set the format of all cells in a spreadsheet
    to "Text" before pasting the estimates table. This prevents the spreadsheet
    program from trying to interpret the cells and ensures that the contents of the
    table remain unchanged.


        +-------------------+
    ----+ Using @-variables +--------------------------------------------------------

    estout features several variables that can be used within string specifications.
    The following list provides an overview of these variables.

     o  In prehead(), posthead(), prefoot(), and postfoot(), in the begin() and end()
        label suboptions, and in the blist() and elist() suboptions in varlabels():

            @span to return the value of a count variable for the total number of
                physical columns of the table.

            @M to return the number of models in the table.

            @E to return the total number columns containing separate equations.

            @width to return the total width of the table (number of characters).

            @hline to return a horizontal line (series of dashes, by default; see the
                hlinechar() option).

     o  In prehead(), posthead(), prefoot(), and postfoot():

            @title to return the title specified with the title() option.

            @note to return the note specified with the note() option.

            @discrete to return the explanations provided by the discrete() option
                (provided that the margin option is activated).

            @starlegend to return a legend explaining the significance symbols.

     o  In the prefix() and suffix() suboptions of mgroups(), mlabels(), eqlabels(),
        and collabels(), and in the labels specified in these options:

            @span to return the number of spanned columns.

     o  In the erepeat() suboption of mgroups(), mlabels(), eqlabels(), and
        collabels():

            @span to return the range of spanned columns (e.g. 2-4 if columns 2, 3
                and 4 are spanned).


        +----------------+
    ----+ Defaults files +-----------------------------------------------------------

    Creating new defaults files:

    To make available an own set of default options, proceed as follows:

        1. Download "estout_mystyle.def" from the SSC Archive (click here to copy the
           file from SSC and store it in the working directory).

        2. Open "estout_mystyle.def" in a text editor and make the desired
           modifications (click here to open "estout_mystyle.def" in Stata's Do-File
           Editor).

        3. Save the file in the current directory or elsewhere in the ado-file path
           as estout_newstyle.def (see help sysdir).

    To use the new options set in estout, then type:

        . estout ... , style(newstyle)


    Defaults files syntax:

    estout has two main types of options, which are treated differentially in
    defaults files. On the one hand, there are simple on/off options without
    arguments, like legend or showtabs. To turn such an option on, enter the option
    followed by the options name as an argument, i.e. add the line

        option option

    to the defaults file. For example,

        legend legend

    specifies that a legend be printed in the table footer. Otherwise, if you want to
    turn the option of, just delete or comment out the line that contains it (or
    specify option without an argument).

    To temporarily turn off an option that has been activated in a defaults file,
    specify nooption in the command line (do not, however, use nooption in defaults
    files). For example, if the legend has been turned on in the defaults file, but
    you want to suppress it in a specific call of estout, type

        . estout ..., nolegend

    On the other hand, there are options that take arguments, such as prehead(args),
    delimiter(args), or stats(args, ...). Such options are specified as

        option args

    in the defaults file (where args must not include suboptions; see below).
    Specifying an option in the command line overwrites the settings from the
    defaults file. However, note that a no form, which exists for the first options
    type, is not available here.

    Last but not least, there are two options that reflect a combination of the first
    and second types: eform[(args)] and margin[(args)]. These options can be
    specified as either

        option option

    or

        option args

    in the defaults file; the no form is allowed.

    Many estout options have suboptions, i.e., an option might take the form
    option(..., suboption) or option(..., suboption(args)). In the defaults file, the
    suboptions cannot be included in the definition of a higher-level option.
    Instead, they must be specified in their own lines, as either

        optionsuboption suboption

    or

        optionsuboption args

    In the case of a two-level nesting of options, the name used to refer to the
    suboption is a concatenation of the option's name and the suboption's name, i.e.
    "optionsuboption"="option"+"suboption". For example, the labels() suboption of
    the stats() option would be set by the term statslabels. Analogously, the three
    level nesting in the stats() option yields suboption names composed of three
    names. For instance, the suboption called by the command

        . estout ..., stats(..., labels(..., prefix(args)))

    would be referred to as

        statslabelsprefix args

    in the defaults file. The cells() option represents an exception to this rule. It
    may be defined in the defaults file using only a plain array of cells elements
    without suboptions, e.g.

        cells "b se" p

    However, the suboptions of the cells elements may be referred to as el_suboption,
    for example

        b_star star

    or

        se_par [ ]


    Comments in defaults files:

    Be aware that the support for comments in defaults files is limited. In
    particular, the /* and */ comment indicators cannot be used.  The other comment
    indicators work (more or less) as usual, that is:

     o  Empty lines and lines beginning with * (with or without preceding blanks)
        will be ignored.

     o  // preceded by one or more blanks indicates that the rest of the line should
        be ignored. Lines beginning with // (with or without preceding blanks) will
        be ignored.

     o  /// preceded by one or more blanks indicates that the rest of the line should
        be ignored and the part of the line preceding it should be added to the next
        line. In other words, /// can be used to split commands into two or more
        lines of code.


Saved results

    estout saves the following in r():

    Scalars
      r(nmodels)    number of models
      r(ccols)      number of columns per model in r(coefs)

    Macros
      r(cmdline)    command as typed
      r(names)      names of models
      r(m#_name)    model-specific macros where # is the model number and name is
                    macro name

    Matrices
      r(coefs)      coefficients
      r(stats)      summary statistics


References

    Cong, R. (2000). sg144: Marginal effects of the tobit model.  Stata Technical
        Bulletin 56: 27-34.

    Jann, B. (2005). Making regression tables from stored estimates.  The Stata
        Journal 5(3): 288-308.

    Jann, B. (2007). Making regression tables simplified.  The Stata Journal 7(2):
        227-244.

    Newson, R. (2003). Confidence intervals and p-values for delivery to the end
        user. The Stata Journal 3(3): 245-269.


Acknowledgements

    I would like to thank numerous people for their comments and suggestions. Among
    them are Joao Pedro Azevedo, Kit Baum, Elisabeth Coutts, Henriette Engelhardt,
    Jonathan Gardnerand, Simone Hirschvogl, Daniel Hoechle, Friedrich Huebler, Maren
    Kandulla, J. Scott Long, David Newhouse, Clive Nicholas, Fredrik Wallenberg, Ian
    Watson, and Vince Wiggins.


Author

    Ben Jann, Institute of Sociology, University of Bern, jann@soz.unibe.ch


Also see

    Manual:  [R] estimates

    SJ:      SJ5-3 st0085 (Jann 2005)
             SJ7-2 st0085_1 (Jann 2007)

    Online:  help for estimates, estcom, estimates table, ereturn, format, file, mfx,
             eststo, esttab, estadd, estpost